Development

1. Prestudy of engine and transmission design and characteristics 

2. Analysis of engine and transmission parameters during operation

3. Emissions

4. Recommended operating ranges and absolute maximum ratings

5. Functionality of engine management system

6. Safety features

7. Calibration of management system devices

8. Second analysis of engine and transmission parameters during operation

9. Characterization

10. Qualification

11. Programming tools

12. Revisions 



  1. Prestudy of engine and transmission design and characteristics 

At the beginning of every project at BSR, a prestudy of the engine and transmission characteristics is performed. This part of the project includes a thorough investigation of the cars basic features and dimensioning properties in order to spot any items that prevents future tuning. Based on theoretical calculations in combination with practical tests, as well as previous experiences from earlier revisions of an engine, a basic set of guidelines are given regarding the cars possibility for increased power. Furthermore, the car manufacturers choice of fuel injectors, turbo charger, fuel pumps etc. will determine what power levels are possible to reach.

For each transmission setup, BSR takes into consideration the properties of that particular transmission type as modern transmissions have sophisticated software diagnostics and control features. This is something that needs special attention for durability and comfort purposes.
When a conversion kit is about to be developed for alternative fuel usage, the prestudy is extended with material analysis of each component that comes in contact with the new fuel type to fully understand what results can be expected. 


  2. Analysis of engine and transmission parameters during operation
A complete analysis of all engine and transmission parameters that will be affected during a tuning operation are carefully performed under load. This part of the development is performed in both a chassis dynamometer as well as during extensive test drives under varying driving circumstances. All parameters are logged and analyzed such as exhaust gas temperatures, oil temperatures, manifold air temperatures, back pressure characteristics as well as general performance of each engine part. It is of utmost importance that the test cell used during the evaluation has all the necessary hardware and software features required to simulate all possible driving conditions. At BSR, state of the art equipment as well as world class software is used for this. 


  3. Emissions
All fuel types used by modern combustion engines are based on three major components. Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H) and Oxygen. These three components occur in different proportions regarding what fuel type is used and for standard petrol and diesel fuel, the oxygen level is negligible and the oxygen is added via the filtered air intake . For alcohol based fuels (such as ethanol that is commonly used as additives) oxygen is present. A generic description of the combustion phase is: 

 Oxygen + Hydrocarbon => Carbon dioxide + Water

 In an ideal combustion no oxygen remains and the combustion is labeled as being stoichiometric. Commonly, the greek letter lambda (λ) is used to describe this where λ=1.0 implies a stoichiometric combustion. Furthermore it also describes any possible oxygen surplus and at 10% surplus, we see λ = 1.1. This measured value is very important whilst calibrating the fuel settings of an engine as it gives a direct feedback on the basic properties of the fuel mixture during engine operation. In real life, the combustion is seldom perfect as residue chemical compositions are always present such as hydro carbons, carbon monoxide, oxygen and nitrogen oxides. These are carefully monitored by the engine vendor and during the development phase at BSR, actions are taken to maintain or decrease stock levels.

 One important aspect during this part of the evaluation is to understand that low fuel consumption and good milage do not automatically mean that emissions are low. When running an engine lean the temperature in the combustion chamber increases, creating toxic nitrogen oxides. At a glance, the car will show improved fuel economy, but a deeper analysis will reveal toxic exhaust fumes as well as increased thermal strain on the engine that in time will affect the durability.

 The term "ECO-tuning" is often used, but this has a very negative side effect as mentioned above.

 When developing conversion kits, a thorough investigation of the emissioins is performed for all fuel types and mixtures that will be used. 


  4. Recommended operating ranges and absolute maximum ratings
The results from the analysis of engine and transmission parameters during operation gives a basic understanding of what power levels the engine can handle. Each engine component is designed to work within a certain range and by mapping the range for all components using stock software, a matrix showing how fit each component is for a wider use becomes evident.
BSR never overrides the component manufacturers recommendations for operating range and in cases where a component will risk of running outside its range, it is replaced with units that are properly dimensioned. This is seen in the tuning kits where turbochargers are upgraded, fuel injectors are upgraded, exhaust systems are upgraded etc. 


  5. Functionality of engine management system
 Next step in the development phase is to chart the engine management system and to explore the possibilities for tuning activities. This phase of the development is extremely time consuming as a state of the art engine management system holds numerous features, all important to ensure all aspects of the engines functions such as reliability, drivability, performance, fuel consumption and environmental aspects. 


  6. Safety features
 An optimized calibration of the engine management system is very important in order to ensure that all safety features such as spin control and ESP (Electronic Stability Program) is still in 100% operation after the tuning of the engine. Also, the anti theft features of the vehicle must not be affected by the tuning and all diagnostics, service and maintenance routines must remain operational to ensure that the car will receive proper care from the service garage. For cars with automatic transmissions, all safety features remain such as torque control during gear shifts. 


  7. Calibration of management system devices
After having charted the engine management system the re-calibration phase begins and the power and torque is increased while keeping all engine components inside the manufacturers recommendations. During this phase, all engine parameters are measured and logged as tests are taking place both in a chassis dynamometer as well as during road tests where the latter also includes evaluations of subjective impressions such as driving experience, throttle response and engine behavior. In order to optimize both drivability and comfort, the engine management system is, where applicable, calibrated with individual torque levels in different gears to obtain maximum performance and driving experience without unnecessary wheel spin. 

  










8. Second analysis of engine and transmission parameters during operation

 As soon as the re-calibration of the engine management system is completed, the analysis of the engine performed in section three is performed yet again. This is to ensure that no engine component works outside its recommended range. This analysis is performed both in a chassis dynamometer as well as during road tests and all engine data is logged and analyzed. 


  9. Characterization
 Once all engine parameters under operations are analyzed, and any minor corrections to the calibration is completed, the characterization begins. During this phase, the engine performance is measured using a Rototest VPA chassis dynamometer. Also, emissions tests are carried out as well as accelerations test in several gears and speeds. 


  10. Qualification
 The qualification procedure requires that several cars are subjected to long term testing when being driven under various conditions and loads using different driving styles. All test results are monitored, logged and evaluated. 


  11. Programming tools
 During this phase, tools for programming customer cars are developed. The majority of the cars are programmed using the BSR PPC device, but serial communication using a computer is used in some cases as well.



12. Revisions
 As every vehicle comes in several revisions, car manufacturers will provide updated software packages frequently. These updated software packages are analyzed by BSR and is offered to our customers when the car manufacturer is distributing them.

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